ABSTRACTS No. 17 - Page 216


Hasan Hanafi:

From the Criticism of Document to the Criticism of Text (pt.3)

Dr Hasan Hanafi, philosophy professor at the University of cairo, tries to represent a method for utilizing social and human sciences in hadith criticism. Hence he approaches the document criticism and text analysis of Prohetic hadiths from three perspectives: sociological, historical, and literaty criticisms. He also represents the patterns or genres of the hadith so as to display the utility of each type of criticism.
In the previous parts, the wrier came up with a definition of hadith criticism together with the value and necessity for this criticism as well as that of the Sahih of al-Bukhari. He indicatied the relation of the hadith with the Quran and elucidated their interdependenee; moreover, he made explicit various genres (direct quotation, narration, dialogue, questioning and answers, and the use of the sign language) in the Prohetie hadith.
In the present part, Hanafi talks about the historiocity of the form and content of the hadith so as to prove that the form (structure and mode of addressing) in the hadith is a function of the laws and rules of oral report; the content (subject) of the hadith is related to its synchronic conditions, customs, practices and the characteristics of those days.
He then represents the social, cultural, political, and religious conditions of the Age of the Prophet throughout the Prophetic hadiths. In all cases, his evidenes is all based of al-Sahih of al-Bukhari.

Muhammad-cAli Sultani:

Fiqh al-Hadith as Viewed by Ayatollah Burujirdi

Ayatollah Sayyed Husayn Tabatabayi-Burujirdi (d. 1339 Sh/1961) was one of special Shiite faqihs of the present century who had special theories and doctrines in the fields of diraya [hadith criticism] and rijal. His rijal-oriented views and perspectives exerted influence on his understanding of fiqh rules, all leading on to a remarkable change in the history of Shiite fiqh, hence a new school in Shiite fiqh was established which was based on the identification, interpretation, and criticism of hadith.
burujirdi's doctrines in fiqh al-hadith feature nine characteristics which are as follows:
1. He regarded early Shiite fiqh sources as hadith texts, hence he regarded them very highly; however, as for fiqh texts of the ijtihad period, he regarded them no more than a mujtahid's achievements.
2. He held that a knowledge of the time, conditions of life, the dominant fiqh of the time, and the circumstances in which a hadith is issued play a significant part in understanding the hadith.
3. He accepted paraphrasing in hadith, hence he regarded several hadiths as one, never accepted insistance on the words actually useds in a hadith.
4. He regarded the mental capacity and calibre of the inquirer of a hadith -from an Infalliable

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