Hadith Studies [A Journal of University of Kashan] Released
Publish Date: 10/23/2016 Code: 54124

Hadith Studies [A Journal of University of Kashan] Released

In this issue you read:
Tustari s method in the discovery and correction of distortions (Tahrif) and Tashifs in"Qamus-al-Rijal"
Maerefat bain al-Haddain” or Knowledge between two borders in Quranic verses and Hadith of the Prophet’s household (pbut)
The necessity of Attention to the implications in Hadith Understanding
Survey Sources of Ziyarat Ashura
Hadith Fiction of Zamakhshari in al-Kashshaf and Effect of Thalabi on it

Tustari's method in the discovery and correction of distortions (Tahrif) and Tashifs in"Qamus-al-Rijal"

Fathiyya Fattahizade

Mohammad Kazem Rahman Setayesh 

Somayyeh Razavikhah

The present article has considered the methods of Tustari in "Qamus-al-Rijal" about recognition and correction the distortions in "Tanqih al-maqal" by Allameh Mamqani and categorizes them by saying examples. Tustari's method for discovery and correction these distortions included two levels: in first level by criterions like narrations variances, disharmony in class narrators and mismatch of the hadith text with the rules of the Arabic language and writing, he expresses the possibility of distortion occurrence. Then for recognizing the correct text, he uses methods such as confronting hadith text in different books and preference one of them and also reference to more correct editions and original books, recognizing the class of narrators, genealogy, pay attention to mention or anonymity in rijal books and hadiths, oneness or multiplicity in the titles, individuation or unison in narrations. However, he sometimes uses several methods together or employs a method with the other solution way via compounded method. He has used method of confronting and comparison the different narrations more than other methods. Distortions that tustari has corrected them in Qamus-al-Rijal can put them in three classes: distortions that has been occurred by Mamqani, distortions that are in Kashshi's hadiths and distortions of the other books. Of course removing all these distortions doesn’t have affect in Rejal judgments and just removal some of them is necessary for correct Rejal judgment

Keywords: Tustari, Qamus al-Rijal, Distortion (Tahrif), Tashif

“Maerefat bain al-Haddain” or Knowledge between two borders in Qur’anic verses and Hadith of the Prophet’s household (pbut)

Majid Maaref

Abdolhadi Feghhizadeh

Mostafa Azerakhshi

Arouse people's attention towards the God, is the most central issue in the teachings of the Holy Quran and the Prophet’s household (pbut). In many of Qur’anic verses and the Imams (pbut) rewayats (sayings), belief in the being of God and his surrounding of all of the universe has been stated; This has been mentioned in a way that this fundamental belief is the base of all religious issues and themes including Beliefs, morals and practical rules. Also there has been mentioned that God almighty is not similar to any of his creations. Therefore, in such teachings, belief in the God Almighty and Denying the similarity between God and creations, has been emphasized. These two subjects, in hadith of the Prophet’s household (pbut), have been mentioned with the topic of “Marefat bain al-haddain.” It explains the knowledge that is far from the abyss of denial of God and similarity to his creations. This level of knowledge is the minimal knowledge that humans must have about God all mightly.

Keywords: monotheism, Marefat bain al-haddain, obstruction, denial and similarity.

The necessity of Attention to the implications in Hadith Understanding

Ali Mohammad Mirjalili

In the process of hadith understanding, there is a need for an appropriate scientific approach; it is called "fiqh al-Hadith". Ignoring the principles of implications, thus, lead to mistakes in the understanding of the hadiths. In order to make the procedure of dealing with "fiqh al-Hadith" more comprehensive and up-to-date, Due to the kind of implications in hadiths. A hadith researcher who seeking the right understanding of it should not consider just the corresponding implication; rather, he or she is bound to pay attention to all possibly existing kinds of implications, which include texture, implied, requisite, monitive, and allusive implications. In this case the researchers considered all the concepts of Imam hadith. This approach to hadith understanding was also favored and practiced by Imams (pbut).This paper aims at survey different sorts of implications and the necessity of paying attention to them in hadith understanding

Keywords: implication, narration of Hadith, Hadith, Hadith Understanding (Fiqh al-hadith).

Survey Sources of Ziyarat Ashura

Mohammad Ghorbanimoghadam

The text of Ziyarat Ashura has been transmitted in four main ways, three way reaches to Imam Muhammad al- Baqir (a.s.) and the next to Imam Jafar al- Sadiq (a.s.). Two ways has been narrated in the book Misbah al- Mutahajjid by Sheikh Tusi and two other ways in the book Kamil al-Ziyarat by Ibn quliwaih. If someone agrees and accept the famous narrators of Kamil al-Ziyarat and trusts on all narrators there, there would be no need for to investigate about them and easily can trust on all those Ahadith and find out that they have been narrated by Imam Muhammad Al- baqir (a.s.). But if someone does not agree on those bases or as like as the writer of this paper only accepts the immediate narrators, must investigate exactly about every individual narrators. The base of early scholars that agree on the trust on issuance than trust on reliability of narrators although today it does not have efficiency because of the lack of evidence, but about Ziyarat Ashoura because of the unique fame and reputation and also Knowledgable and exact text of it we can trust on it. In this article the author has put his bases on the bases of late Scholars and by investigating the asnad of this Ziyarat we conclude that the second sand which has been mentioned in the book Misbaha al- Mutahajjid by Sheikh Tusi, both in the way of narration and the narrators has no problem and is trustworthy.

Keywords: narrators, Ziyarah Ashura, sanad, Kamil al-Ziyarat, Misbah Al- Mutahajjid.

Hadith Fiction of Zamakhshari in al-Kashshaf and Effect of Tha'labi on it

Mohammad Hasan Saneipur

Zimakhshari's al-Kashshaf is a famous rational and Kalam exegesis. Although it has significant number of hadith but the hadith feature of al-Kashshaf is neglected and this article is based of isnad analysis and Irsal al-hadith and is based on the opinions of the scholars of Hadith, especially about fabrication of Hadith and it tries to criticize hadith in al-Kashshaf and to seek phenomenon of hadith fiction in it. By follow-up hadith of Fazl ai-suwar Attributed to Ubayy bin Ka'b and report of books of Takhrij for al-Kashshaf about some hadith fabricating in it, not only confirmed Zamakhshari's hadith fiction, but also confirmed effect of Tha'labi on him and this phenomenon in al-Kashshaf. Ibn hajar's phrase "lam ajidhu" (لم أجده) and Zayla'i's phrase "gharibun" (غریبٌ) imply this phenomenon. On the other hand Zamakhshari delete sanad of hadith (irsal al-hadith) that in Tha'labi and Wahidi' exegeses have this sanad (isnad al-hadith).

Keywords: Zamakhshari's al-Kashshaf, Interpretation by hadith, Irsal al-hadith, Hadith of Fazl al-suwar, Tha'labi

Validation of Hadith of Nation (Ummah) imprecation; its Source and Concept

Sayyid Reza Moadab

Kamran Oveisi

Nation (Ummah) imprecation Hadith belongs to Ashrat al-saah in which the imprecation of the early Islamic nations by the next generations is considered to be one of the causes of Muslims’ Involvement in the last time. The mentioned hadiths that have Sunni narrators have often been transmitted by Shiykh Saduq and Shiykh Tusi. Similarity of the words and sanad of Nation imprecation Hadith in Sunni and Shiite books, say this hadith maybe transmitted from Sunni sources to those of Shiite. Due to their lack of Imami belief in justice to all companions of the Prophet, and the imprecation of some of them on the other hand, some Sunni scholars have criticized Shiite scholars who have cited the Nation imprecation Hadith. But all asnad and chains of nation imprecation Hadith are weak. By accepting the relationship between the Nation imprecation and the last time, the nation imprecation Hadith may indicate the imprecation of Ali (pbuh) by the Umayyads, Kharijites and nawasib.

Keywords: Nation Imprecation, Ashrat al-saah, the last time.

Variety of Hadith Recording Styles of Iranian in 12th Century

Fereshteh Kasradehkordi

Parvin Baharzadeh

In the sixth century, At the same time with the Seljuks Empire in Iran, the Shiite hadith spent their recess time. New writing styles rarely emerge in in this period. Thus, Shiite hadith works in the Seljuks period are less than previous one. Shiite hadith written styles in this period include “recording Arba'in” (Forty Hadith), "recording Manaqib" “recording Imams's Faza'il", "prayer books" and "tombs books" and continuing some writing styles of previous periods. Perhaps the damaging effect of the Seljuks and the influx of sunni to shiite beliefs is effective on "recording Manaqib". In the course "recording Gharib" and "recording explanation" and "traditional exegesis" had been common. The 12th century is a time to carry out supplementary and lateral processes on hadith books by the Sunni scholars. In this period, "recording atraf", "recording takhrij", "recording jami" (comprehensive books) and organized the works of previous scholars. Description of the religious texts and recording amali were common styles between Shiite and Sunni scholars. In this century, different hadith schools were active. It seems that the work of Shiite hadith is more conspicuous in Rey School. Sunni hadith schools were active in most parts of Khorasan and Shiites were the majority in some cities in Khorasan such as Sabzevar. Hadith exchanges between Shiites and Sunnis also be seen in this period.

Keywords: Hadith, Hadith Recording styles, Hadith schools, Iran, the 12th century.

Prophetic Hadiths and its Function in Nahj al-Balagheh

Hamid Reza Fahimitabar

Every literary text, arise from the previous text and outcome of the interaction and dependencies between structural and semantic aspects and collection of quotes. Nahj al-Balagheh as a text, contains Quranic intertextuality, the Prophetic hadiths and Arab poetry. Since intertextuality  divided  to three types; quotation, plagiarism, allusion. in this paper, for answering the question about kind of intertextuality of the Prophet's hadiths in Nahj al-Balagheh, we elicit words of the Prophet and citations of his practices from Nahj al-Balagheh and marked the type of its intertextuality then survey function of the Prophet's hadiths. When Ali (pbuh) invited everyone to follow the Prophet's practices with "واستنوا بسنته فإنها أهدی السنن" we see propagative function and when he related the Prophetic command, " غیروا الشیب و لا تشبهه بالیهود" to especial situation of the Prophet, leaded us to pay attention to occasions hadith in understanding of it. When he cites the words of the Prophet for understanding of dissension in first verse of sūra al-ankabut (spider sūra); leaded us interpretational function. Ali argued with the Kharijites by referring to hadith of adulterer stoned to death by the Prophet and then pray over his body, to show argument function of hadith. So, author shows that the Prophet's hadith and practice in Nahj albalagha have propagative; hadith understanding; interpretational; argument and persuasive function.

Keywords: Ali (pbuh), the Prophet (pbuh), Nahj al-balaghah, intertextual relations, Prophetic Hadith, Function.

A Critical Analysis and Review of Fabricated Hadiths on Multi-divorces of Imam Hassan (pbuh)

Rasul Mohamadjafari

Alinaqi Lezgi

Fabrication of Hadith is a problem with which the early Islamic society had confronted, and among the causes, character assassination of religious and political leaders could be pointed. Imam Hassan (pbuh) was a best moral pattern for the people, but fabricated hadiths degraded his spiritual and scientific character. Both Shi'a and Sunni sources, with different ways, reported by Imam Sadeq (pbuh) that he frequently married and divorced in his lifetime. In some sources, without sanad, the number of his wives is mentioned more than three hundreds. According to evidences, Mansoor Abasi as the origin of these fabricated hadiths and in historical books he is referred as the first one who attributed such accusations to Imam Hassan (pbuh). The science of Rijal and Dirayah shows that basically some of these hadiths are reported without sand (chain of transmission) and are so weak that have not any validity to be regarded as a hadith, and the set are reported from only two Shi'as: Abdullah bin Sanan and Yahya bin Abul'ala al-Razi and one Sunni: Hatam Bin Isma'il. Research shows that it is possible these hadiths are fabricated and incorporated by the government into Shiite hadith works of them and the Sunni one also is narrated from Imam Sadiq (pbuh) in a morsal form. Regarding the content, these hadiths have serious conflict with rational and traditional proofs, as well.

Keywords: Imam Hassan (pbuh), multi-divorces, Hadith fabrication, Abbasid Caliphate.

Survey on the Sanad and Text of Occasions of Revelation of al-Mu'awwidhatayn

Reza Aghapour

Mohammad Sadeq Heidari

One of the hadith about the occasions of revelation of surat al-Falaq and al-Nas is the saying by the Jewish Labid ibn A'sam about magic of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). According tothis hadith, a person called Labid ibn A'sam bewitched Prophet Muhammad by blowing into eleven nodes and Prophet was sick because of this magic. Afterwards, God revealed surat al-Falaq and al-Nas to Prophet to heal him. The present research, which was carried out using the descriptive-analytical method, aimed at survey the “sand and text” of this hadiths in Shiite and Sunni sources. Investigations indicated that this hadith was mentioned in different hadith sources and exegetical sources of the two sects in different forms and all of these references suffer a weakness in sanad. In addition, the contents of these hadiths due to contradictions in their textual contents and conflict with the Quran, Prophet’s dignity, his infallibility, and historic facts, cause anxiety and distress and are not unreliable.

Keywords: al-Mu'awwidhatayn, Labid ibn A'sam, Sanad criticize, text criticize.



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