Ulum-i Hadith (Hadith Sciences) No. 79 Released
Publish Date: 1/7/2017 Code: 55709

Ulum-i Hadith (Hadith Sciences) No. 79 Released

The hadith "la-adwā": attribution and concept recognition: A survey on the origin of the claim that according to Islam the illnesses are not contagious
Quiddity and specifications of Heavenly Dispensation Spirit (al-rūḥ al-amrī al-malakūtī)
Way of treatment with the traditions dealing with virtues and effects of Quranic chapters and verses
Analyzing the contradictory reports admiring and reproaching Mu

The hadith "la-adwā": attribution and concept recognition: A survey on the origin of the claim that according to Islam the illnesses are not contagious

Mahmoud Karimiyan 
The hadith "la-'adwā" denoting the absolute negation of contagiousness of illnesses from the ill person to a healthy one is attributed to the Prophet (SAWA) in the hadith collection of the Two Schools (Shi'a and Sunni). This hadith contradicts both the experimental and medical indisputable things, as well as some of the reliable traditions. For this reason it was noticed by the thinkers and scholars in the field of hadith discussions, and received their justifications about its purport; however, none of them is compatible with the appearance of the hadith and the atmosphere of its issuance. At the same time the probability of abrogation, distortion and paraphrasing about it is denied. Considering these objections, as well as the weakness in its reliability in the Shi'a resources, and the doubt or denial about certain narrators of it in Sunni resources this tradition is seriously and fundamentally questionable. This article attempts to evaluate the reliability of this hadith and to recognize its purport. It also explains the above objections and investigates the reliability of the isnād of the hadith. In addition it studies the different opinions that can be expressed about its meaning and rejects them all, and finally, reinforces the probability that the hadith in question is a fabricated one.
Keywords: "la-'adwā", contagiousness of an illness, mange, attribution of the hadith, recognition of purport, hadith comprehension, hadith fabrication.
Quiddity and specifications of Heavenly Dispensation Spirit (al-rūḥ al-amrī al-malakūtī)
Kavoos Roohi Barandaq 
Ali Haji-khani 
Ali Bidsorkhy 
The subject of spirit and its ranks is among complicated and important discussions dealt with in the Qur'an and the traditions quoted from the Infallibles (AS). Among the ranks of the spirit is the Dispensation Spirit (al-rūḥ al-amrī) stipulated in the Qur'an in the surah Isrā' (17:85) and surah Shūrā (42:52). In addition, numerous traditions in virtue of its characteristics and quiddity have been mentioned in exegeses and hadith collections. This article analyzed the quiddity of the Dispensation Spirit in the light of the traditions narrated from the Infallibles (AS) and has concluded that the spirit is a heavenly spiritual reality in the existence of the Ahl al-Bayt (AS), and that the source of their divine knowledge with regard to all things from the aspect of existential rank is superior to (that of) all angels, and is the highest rank of spirit and is - by God's permission - the source of amazing effects.
Keywords: the Dispensation Spirit (al-rūḥ al-amrī), heavenly, ranks of human spirit, greater than the angels, traditions, the Infallibles (AS). 


Way of treatment with the traditions dealing with virtues and effects of Qur'anic chapters and verses
Ali Naseeri 
The traditions dealing with virtues and effects of Qur'anic chapters and verses are considered as a collection of interpretative traditions in which the position of the Qur'anic chapters and verses, as well as their effects in this world and the next have been explained. Regardless of occurrence of the phenomenon of distortion in this group of traditions they are usually misunderstood, a fact which has caused a negative approach towards them. This article has introduced the expanse of the sources, explained their concepts and has also studied three rules to deal with this group of traditions: 1) one should be cautious in accepting the traditions dealing with virtues and effects; 2) virtues and effects play the role of preparation; they are not the sufficient causes; 3) the virtues of the Qur'anic chapters and verses should be proportional to their content. The first rule underlines the necessity of certainty with regard to issuance of this group of traditions, and the two other rules emphasize the way of understanding and interpreting them.
Keywords: Traditions dealing with virtues of Qur'anic chapters and verses, traditions dealing with effects of Qur'anic chapters and verses, fabrication of hadith, the phenomenon of encouragement and warning.
Analyzing the contradictory reports admiring and reproaching Mu'allā ibn Khunays and studying the causes for his weakening
Rahimeh Shamshiri 
There exist contradictions among the traditions that praise or reproach a hadith transmitter that occasions at times the difference in the opinions of the Rijal experts with regard to certifying the reliability or weakening (the reliability of) a hadith transmitter. One of the hadith transmitters about whom contradictory reports have been narrated from Imam Sadiq (AS) is Mu'allā ibn Khunays. Despite existence of authentic traditions in his praise two critics from among early Imami experts in Rijal science have ruled that he is a weak hadith transmitter. This article attempts - by employing a historical approach - to discover the backgrounds of the issuance of the verdict of weakening him in the eyes of the two Imami Rijal experts by means of analyzing the traditions denoting praise and those denoting reproach, as well as the traditions transmitted by Mu'allā ibn Khunays. In our opinion the fact that al-Najāshī has weakened the reliability of Mu'allā ibn Khunays is that he was under the influence of Ibn al-Ghadā'irī's opinion. The latter's opinion was not because of the traditions reproaching Mu'allā, but rather it originated from his reliance upon the historical reports as well has his ijtihad (independent reasoning) from the collection of indications available in his time.
Keywords: Mu'allā ibn Khunays, traditions denoting praise and or reproach, Rijal of al-Kashshī, al-Najāshī, Ahmad ibn Husayn al-Ghaḍā'irī.
A survey on the Rijal-oriented character of Abū Khālid al-Kābulī, with an emphasis on differentiation among the homonymous names
Mona Zaynali Toroqi 
Alireza Ashtari Tafreshi 
Rouhollah Beheshti-pur 
While studying the Rijal-oriented character of Abū Khālid al-Kābulī we face two kunyas and several homonymous names. The evaluations of this article indicate that he has been considered by the Rijal experts as identical with such personalities as Khālid ibn Yazīd, Yazīd ibn Tha'labah ibn Maymūn and Yazīd Abū Khālid al-Qammāṭ. These reports make the study of the Rijal-oriented character of Abū Khālid al-Kābulī complicated. In addition to the fact that in some cases the names and the kunyahs have been confused, certain scholars like Ibn Sahrāshūb have added the variable of ghuluww (extremism) to this confusion! The necessity of recognition of this personality is from the aspect that he has played a special role in the history of Shi'a hadith and the Shi'a doctrinal system. Many cases of confusion are found in the resources ignoring of which caused the decline in this Shi'a hadith character to the level of founding the extremism. It also caused questions to be raised about the genuineness of Imami doctrinal system. For this reason investigation of the reliability criteria of Abū Khālid is of great importance.
Keywords: Abū Khālid al-Kābulī, Abū Khālid al-Qammāṭ, differentiation among the homonymous names, ghuluww (extremism), reliability.
A study on the situation of Hafṣ b. Sulaymān al-Qārī in the light of differentiation among homonymous names in Rijal resources
Elaheh Shah-pasand 
Hafṣ b. Sulaymān is the narrator (rāwī) of 'Āṣim, the transmitter of the recitation attributed to Imam Ali (AS). Priority of his position to the other narrator of 'Āṣim was admitted by many experts. He did not attract the attention of authors of Shi'a Rijal books, while he was warmly received in the Sunni sources in the field of Rijal science as well as the Qur'anic science and knowledge. Hafṣ, the narrator of 'Āṣim, has been considered by many of Sunni Rijal experts as reliable; however, certain cases of weakening, especially from the aspect of his hadith-related reputation have been reported so that – as it is understood from the historical indications – one of the reasons for this weakening is homonymy between Hafṣ b. Sulaymān al-Muqrī and Hafṣ b. Sulaymān al-Minqarī. This issue caused some cases of weakness concerning Hafṣ al-Minqarī to be attributed to Hafṣ al-Muqrī, as well. Even if one would not be able to claim that all cases of weakening that are concerned with the hadith-related aspect of Hafṣ, have been reported about Hafṣ al-Minqarī; it can be said that Hafṣ was accurate in his recitation (of the Qur'an); however, he was not accurate in the field of hadith.
Keywords: Hafṣ b. Sulaymān al-Muqrī, Hafṣ al-Minqarī, recitation, hadith, weakening from the aspect of Rijal science.
A comparative survey on methods of Ibn al-Ghaḍā'irī, Shaykh Ṭūsī and al-Najāshī in treatment with non-Imami hadith transmitters
Dr. Mahdi Jalaly 
Samaneh Robati 
The denomination of a hadith transmitter has different functions in the field of Shi'a hadith; one of these functions applies to the field of Rijal science and recognition of the hadith transmitters. Later Shi'a experts in Rijal science have had a special concern about the denomination of the hadith transmitters, and questioned the reliability of non-Shi'a hadith transmitters even if they were reliable per se. However, the early experts of this knowledge based on whose opinions the writings of later Rijal experts were compiled, have considered countless non-Imami hadith transmitters as reliable and have deemed the hadiths transmitted by them dependable. Having applied a comparative method the present article aims to specify the aspects of similarity and differentiation of the early Shi'a Rijal experts' functions in treating with non-Imami hadith transmitters. It also investigates the terms of "jarḥ" and "ta'dīl (lit. weakening and strengthening the status of a hadith transmitter) applied to these hadith transmitters. The field of similarities includes such cases as gradual tawthīq (i.e. considering a hadith transmitter as reliable) of the non-Imami hadith transmitters, the minimal [practice] of "jarḥ" and lack of distinguishing between their past status and their present one; and the field of differences includes such cases as the non-explicit consideration of the non-Imami hadith transmitters as reliable and the emphasized consideration of hadith transmitters as reliable. The findings of this research indicates that the distinct function of each Rijal expert scholar is because of difference in the method and goals of compilation. However, even their different functions represent that Ibn al-Ghadāirī, Shyakh Ṭūsī, and al-Najāshī do not consider the adherence to the Shi'a and Sunni denominations as a reason of weakening a hadith transmitter, rather the veracity and accuracy of a hadith transmitter are the two influential elements for their judgment about the hadith transmitters.
Keywords: hadith transmitters, non-Imami, Ibn al-Ghadāirī, Shyakh Ṭūsī, and al-Najāshī, opinions.


The status of Ibn 'Uqdah in development of Imami Rijal science
A'zam Farjami 
Aziz Ali Hasan-pur 
Ibn 'Uqdah's name has frequently occurred in many compilations of Imami Rijal science. How is the status of this Rijal expert - who is an adherent of Zaidi faith – in development of Imami Rijal science? What is the approach of the Imami Rijal experts concerning his Rijal-oriented opinions? From what factors does the diversity of the early and later Imami scholars' opinions concerning his cases of jarh and ta'dil originate? The extent of advantage taken by Imami scholars in general and Shaykh Tusi, al-Najashi and Allamah al-Hilli, in particular from Ibn 'Uqdah indicates his special impression on the development of Imami Rijal science. However, change in the criteria of trustworthiness in the recent eras caused that Allamah al-Hilli – contrary to the early scholars – did not fully rely upon what was authenticated (tawthīqāt) by Ibn 'Uqdah. This article studies such issues as reaction of the Imami Rijal experts to Ibn 'Uqdah's Rijal-oriented opinions and analyzes the above-mentioned problems.
Keywords: Ibn 'Uqdah, what was authenticated (tawthīqāt) by Ibn 'Uqdah, Imami Rijal science.


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