Ulum-i Hadith (Hadith Sciences) No. 83 Released
Publish Date: 1/2/2018 Code: 62243

Ulum-i Hadith (Hadith Sciences) No. 83 Released

An analysis on textualism in the thought of Allamah Muhammad Baqer Majlesi;
Disagreement of the numbers with the counted items in the traditions with an emphasis on the tradition called "Makārim Akhlāq al-Anbiyā

An analysis on textualism in the thought of Allamah Muhammad Baqer Majlesi

Dr. Sayyid Ali Delbari

One of important questions that has been on the carpet in the history of Islamic thought about recognition of religion is, by applying what method can the religious propositions be verified and evaluated?

Muslim thinkers have given numerous responses to this question that lie mainly under the two major titles of rationalism and textualism (inclination to text). There exist different standpoints under either of these titles. One of the standpoints emerged under the title of textualism is the textualism based on natural intellect. On the basis of this standpoint the natural intellect enjoys full validity in discovering the religious knowledge. On the contrary, the philosophical rationalism in religion has no value. Allamah Majlesi is of those personalities that have acknowledged this standpoint by mentioning certain evidences. Having applied a descriptive-analytical method, this article at first elucidates this standpoint and then evaluates the evidences and foundations of the Allamah and makes it clear that some of his evidences are not defensible.

Keywords: method of discovering religious teachings, textualism, rationalism, Allamah Majlesi.


Disagreement of the numbers with the counted items in the traditions with an emphasis on the

tradition called "Makārim Akhlāq al-Anbiyā'"

Azima, Edris

Ahmad Gholam'ali

Soundness of a tradition text is dependent – along with the recognized methods of isnad-oriented evaluation – to the consistency of the text of tradition. One of the cases observed in certain traditions is that the numbers do not tally with their counted items in the text of tradition. Traditions in which the leaders of religion (i.e. the Prophet or the Imams) mention numbers to enumerate a series of characteristics, traits, etc. but their count does not tally with the primary number. In this article we mentioned some of the traditions of this kind to solve this problem in the tradition of Khaṣā'iṣ al-Anbiyā' (the prophets' characteristics). By getting access to the original text, studying the glossary and establishing the hadith family, we came to this conclusion that a phrase has been dropped in this tradition. It suggests that the two additional attributes of truthfulness (ṣidq) and trustworthiness (amānah) are considered as norms and not as the noble traits, and that it is the inclination towards these attributes that can be considered among noble traits.

Keywords: noble traits, the prophets' characteristics, damage of a tradition, numerical traditions.


An analysis on the effects of theological beliefs on understanding the tradition and its harms

Ali Hasan-bagi

Among the hadith-oriented sciences fiqh al-hadith (hadith comprehension) is remarkably important. The scholars of hadith and legal theory (uṣūl al-fiqh) consider the understanding of the hadith and the text relied upon passing two phases: understanding of the meaning of text (purpose in application) and understanding of the purpose (purpose in one's serious intension). The first phase can be passed by making use of its specific method and tools. Understanding the purpose of the speaker, however, is possible just through benefiting from the indications (qarā’in). It seems that the theological beliefs constitute one of the indications that can be used in understanding the purpose. This article intends to explain how they can be used in hadith comprehension. In addition, it attempts to discover the harms that afflict this indication. Having carried out the studies in this regard it became clear that in case the five conditions are fulfilled, one can rely upon the theological beliefs as a connected intellectual indication to understand the hadiths. Six serious harms afflicting this indication were also recognized and studied in this article.

Keywords: hadith comprehension, indication, theological beliefs, harm.


A critical analysis on the interference of heresy in the Jarḥ (disparaging) and Ta’dīl (declaring trustworthy) regarding the hadith transmitters from the Sunni point of view

Dr. Ali Hajikhani

Dr. Kavous Rouhi Barandaq

Dr. Abbas Mosallayi-pour

Nowrouz Amini

Receiving the tradition from the transmitters of opposite schools of thought (and law) has its specific framework (and limits) in each of Islamic denominations. Based on al-jarḥ wa al-ta'dīl (disparaging a hadith transmitter and/or declaring him as trustworthy) and having considered the amount of the impression of the hadith transmitter's denomination on the content of traditions transmitted by him, the scholars of each school have laid down, for long, rules for reporting and receiving traditions from transmitters professing other denominations. The Sunni sources in order for them to receive a non-Sunni tradition have made mention of a general rule called [the rule of] bid'ah (heresy). But the question is, does such a criterion enjoy the required efficiency in evaluating the transmitters of denominations opposing the Sunni creed? This research studies the amount of interference of heresy in the jarḥ of the transmitter and also the objections raised against it. Existence of strategic ambiguities in the definition of heresy, the determination of its instances, and inability of the rule of heresy in making a tradition fit – in practice – from transmitters professing other [opposing] denominations are among major problems of this rule.

Keywords: Sunni Rijal, heresy, al-jarḥ wa al-ta'dīl (disparaging a hadith transmitter and/or declaring him as trustworthy), conditions of the transmitter, professing a corrupt denomination.


A contemplation on the traditions that censure 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas in certain early Shi'a sources

Sayyid Ja'far Sadeqi

Abdul-Hadi Feqhi-zadeh

Alireza Del-afkar

Ibn 'Abbas is of prominent companions in the fields of exegesis and transmission of traditions who has been mentioned with outstanding titles and epithets (in Islamic sources). Despite the fact that numerous traditions were narrated from him in Shi'a sources a part of which is in harmony with Shi'a beliefs, there exist narrations censuring him in certain early Twelver Shi'a sources. Among cases of this, mention can be made of his betrayal of Imam Ali (AS), being cursed by him and being censured by some of other Imams and certain great Shi'a personalities. However, an analysis on these traditions and comparing (or conforming) them with other similar traditions or those having a shared context about Ibn 'Abbas's political and social policy, and considering the favor he showed to Imam Ali (AS) and Imam Hasan (AS), as well as the convergent stances he had with those of the Ahl al-Bayt (AS) until the end of his life, all indicate that the traditions that censure Ibn 'Abbas - some of which have even crept into the Shi'a sources - have likely been fabricated by the Umayyad or the followers of 'Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr in order to damage the position of the adherents to Imam Ali (AS).

Keywords: traditions, censure, 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas, exegete, early sources, Shi'a.


An analysis on relationship between exaggeration and fabrication in the book "al-Mawḍū'āt fī al-Āthār wa al-Akhbār"

Muhammad Reza Ezzati Fordouyi

Samad Esmi Qiye-bashi

Exaggeration (ghuluww), as a trend of deviation in the religion caused certain damages among which is religiophobia. Mr. Ma'rouf al-Hasani made a stance against the exaggerating traditions and examined them. Since he has deemed many of these traditions fabricated because of being exaggerating, I feel it necessary to study the relationship between exaggeration and fabrication from his perspective.

When confronting with the exaggerating traditions Mr. Ma'rouf al-Hasani has acted, in certain cases, contrary to his own foundation of hadith criticism, and has deemed the accusation of exaggeration equal to fabrication. Therefore, there exist - as mentioned below - some basic problems about his criterion for evaluating exaggerative traditions and considering them as fabricated narrations:

confusion between not being a proof (i.e. lack of authoritativeness) and being fabricated, examination of a traditions by making use of an unreliable historical account, imperfect investigation with regard to the biography of hadith transmitters that are accused of exaggeration, considering the esoteric sound interpretations as fabricated ones, disregarding the precedent of leaving it to the Infallibles (AS) to judge about an ambiguous tradition (radd al-'ilm ila al-ma'ṣūmīn), and not considering the misspelling (taṣḥīf), distortion (taḥrīf) and partial fabrication of a tradition as probable.

Keywords: exaggeration (ghuluww), fabrication, hadith criticism, Hashim Ma'rouf al-Hasani.

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